Within this thesis, silicone oil thiomers were synthesized for the first time and evaluated as (muco-)adhesive polymers with versatile possibilities. For thiolated silicone oil, an advanced mucoadhesion and thus increased residence time on mucosal surfaces as well as on skin in comparison to non-thiolated control, dimethicone or simethicone was evident. The findings further point out that the thiolation of silicone oil provides new biomaterials with enhanced viscoelastic and cohesive features. In addition, thiolation of silicone oil enhances skin substantivity and barrier function with tunable spreadability and reinforced occlusivity. Furthermore, the possibility to adjust these features according to the intended purpose represents a major advantage in comparison to commonly used silicone oils, such as dimethicone. No toxic effect was determined for any of the silicone thiomers. It thus opens the door for improved pharmaceutical formulations: silicone oil thiomers might be advantageous in comparison to commonly used silicone oils, such as dimethicone. This agent is supposed to be an antifoaming and mucoprotective agent as it is indicated for several kinds of flatulence as well as heartburn. So, regarding the advanced mucoadhesiveness of thiolated silicone oils, commercially available formulations might be substantially improved due to a prolonged retention time on the mucosal surfaces. As these thiomers are very lipophilic substances, also a self-emulsifying drug delivery system was developed with outstanding antifoaming activity. Concerning novel therapeutic targets, it might be feasible to apply thiolated silicone oils in the therapy of damaged mucosal barriers, such inflammatory bowel diseases like colitis ulcerosa or Crohns disease. Apart from that, dermatological targets might be hypertrophic scars and keloids, neurodermatitis, psoriasis as well as atopic, allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. As far as preactivated silicones are concerned, they were less assailable by oxidation and showed a lower tendency to emulsify. They are suitable for small needle injections both before and after gelation with subsequent reliquefaction thus fulfilling the lacking requirements of commonly used silicone oils for potential long-term vitreous replacements. In connection to that, entirely S-protected silicone oil can be ascribed with a superior mucus interaction capability in comparison to mere thiolated silicone oil. This assumption was supported by a protective shielding of mucosal surfaces. Silicone-MNA-MNA can therefore be regarded as promising mucoadhesive agent of the second generation as it combines an outstanding mucoadhesion with a potential mucoprotective and antioxidative effect. Potential pharmaceutical ambits might be mucosal targeting and treatment of inflammations, such as inflammatory bowel diseases or reflux oesophagitis.