Since the Neolithic the natural landscape is influenced by humans, either by settlement activities (e.g. urban development, agriculture) or by mining activities. This interfence in natural regions induces longlasting ecological changes in the vegetation of the affected area. Here we present a study dealing with the impact of prehistoric and historic mining on the environment as well as the effects of the associated subsistence economy on the vegetation in the Kitzbühel region (North Tyrol). Thereby the reconstruction of the former vegetation and its changes over time play an essential role. The objective was to evaluate the consequences of single mining activities (exploitation, ore beneficiation, smelting), as well as associated settlement and agricultural activities on the local vegetation based on pollen analysis. In order to relate vegetation changes to mining activities,geochemical analyses were were conducted on peat deposits. Therefore three mires in the Kitzbühel region were investigated. The “Rauber” mire is located in immediate vicinity to the prehistoric exploitation site Kelchalm on 1754 m a.s.l.. The second studied mire, called “Untermoosberg”, is located at the valley bottom (858 m a.s.l.) in the surroundings of prehistoric ore beneficiation and smelting sites in Jochberg. The third mire, called “Bichlach”, is situated on the Lebenberg near the pond “Gieringer” (790 m a.s.l.), east of the town Kitzbühel and evaluates the impact of agriculture and settlement activities in connection with mining. In total three phases of concentrated human impact are defined. A first impact on the local vegetation occurs during Bronze Age (c. 1600-800 BCE). During Early Iron Age a reduction of activities is recorded. At the end of the Laténe period (c. 200 BCE) a second phase of intense human influence on the vegetation with cultivation of cereals and livestock farming takes place. This phase continues until Middle Roman Period (c. 160 CE). A further intensification of use occurs in the High Middle Ages (c. 970 CE). Here the indicators of pasture and settlement, as well as the values of cultural plants are increasing to partly over 2 %. This anthropogenic phase and utilisation of the landscape continues until the present day. These observed phases of intense anthropogenic activities proceed relativley synchronously in the three examined mires. The antropogenic phase during the Bronze Age and the first half of the third phase during Middle Ages and Early Modern Times are characterized by mining activities in the area of Kitzbühel. This is proved by geochemical analysis of the peat and validated by archaeological data and historical sources.