Post-editing is the bilingual checking and correction of a machine translation with the aim of making it suitable for the intended purpose according to specific guidelines and quality cri- teria. Depending on the purpose, either light or full post-editing is appropriate. While the former refers to rendering a machine translation understandable, the latter aims at generating a target text comparable to a human translation. This thesis focuses on giving an overview of the subject field and related technological, industry-related, educational and legal aspects. The main goal is to propose measures to optimise post-editing for both language service providers and their customers. In order to do this, machine translation output can be improved by pre-editing source texts or using controlled language. The appropriate training and use of machine translation sys- tems, possibly in combination with translation memory and terminology management systems, are essential. Post-editing can be facilitated by using translation tools specifically developed or enhanced for post-editing. Automatic post-editing as a preliminary stage for human post-editing is also advisable. Furthermore, post-editing in translator training is proposed as a measure on the one hand to overcome the widespread adverse attitude toward machine translation and post- editing and on the other hand to prepare both new and established translators for future devel- opments and industry needs. Lastly, post-editing guidelines are presented as a means to sum- marise the results. By looking at machine translation post-editing from several angles and sug- gesting means to optimise it, this thesis aims at shedding a more positive light on the subject and the opportunities it holds for the future of the translation industry.