The cosmic microwave background radiation is the relic radiation containing wealth of information about the early universe, such as its physical state, composition, physical processes in effect, including those presently not understood entirely. It was a major sign that the Big Bang model is correct when the cosmic microwave radiation was discovered by Penzias and Wilson in 1964, providing a new observational way to test theoretical cosmology. Since the cosmic microwave radiation has to do with early times, $<3.8\times10 5\ years$ after the Big Bang, it can be used to constrain cosmological parameters. In the thesis statistical and geometrical properties of this radiation are explored, such as hotspots and Minkowski functionals, the methods of analysing them are discussed and connections between the observed patterns and cosmological models, such as base-"Lambda CDM" and those including non-Gaussian contribution are established. Theoretical values of number of hotspots and Minkowski Functionals are compared to simulations and Planck sattelite values. The results of Planck experiment concerning statistics and geometry of the background radiation are presented.