The aim of this dissertation was a fundamental analysis of the potential of character strengths, with regard to better health and well-being in medical education. To that end, two questionnaires to measure well-being in a valid, reliable, and comprehensive but economical way, were first validated in the German speaking area (N = 1.040): The Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving and the short version Brief Inventory of Thriving. Second, the applicability of signature character strengths (ASCS) at work (medical studies vs. clinical work) was analyzed regarding well-being and (mental and physical) health. The ASCS of medical students (N = 387) and resident physicians (N = 136) was positively associated with subjective well-being (SWB), psychological well-being (PWB), and mental health, and was (partly) mediated by burnout. No significant relationship with physical health was found. Third, relational aspects of the 24 character strengths and different well-being aspects (SWB, PWB, and PWB aspects of relationships, engagement, meaning, mastery, autonomy, and optimism) of medical students (N = 117) were analyzed at two time points (one year apart). The character strength of hope was most strongly correlated with the PWB-aspects of optimism, meaning, and autonomy; zest was most relevant to the PWB aspects of engagement and relationships; and persistence was most strongly associated with the PWB aspect of mastery. The studies showed the possession of most character strengths to be positively related with well-being, both cross-sectionally and one year later. Furthermore, the applicability of signature character strengths at work was associated with higher well-being and mental health.