Over the last two decades, quantum information science has made significant progress, both theoretically and experimentally, evolving into a prosperous field with potential commercial applications within the next decade. This PhD thesis reports on four different experiments, performed over the last few years, all investigating various aspects of quantum information science. 40Ca+-ions trapped in a macroscopic, linear Paul trap serve as a qubits encoding quantum information that are coherently manipulated with laser light fields. These four experiments utilise an existing experimental arrangement, adapted to allow coherent manipulation of long ion strings, thus demonstrating the capabilities of the current setup. Two of the experiments presented in this thesis are focused on quantum simulations of interacting many-body systems. In the first experiment, the propagation of entanglement in such a many-body system is experimentally observed for the very first time. Additionally, the systems response is investigated as the spatial range of the interactions is tuned. The following experiment employs a novel spectroscopic method for probing these interacting many-body systems. The third experiment focuses on quantum computation, specifically the measurement-based quantum computation approach. Here, the deterministic generation of cluster states in trapped ions is demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, certain cluster states are used to implement error correction codes of different sizes, granting, to the authors knowledge, the first experimental evidence that larger code words are indeed capable of better protecting quantum information, despite the higher complexity of their preparation. The fourth and last experiment explores a type of quantum correlation present in mixed states, known as quantum discord. The generation of quantum discord via two different, noisy processes -that is, amplitude damping and correlated magnetic field noise - is investigated, and the generated discord is quantified by different measures. In the last part of this thesis, the limitations of the current setup are presented and, if possible, potential solutions are discussed. Furthermore, open questions encountered in the experimental setup are addressed for future investigations in order to obtain a better understanding of further limitations. A brief outlook on possible improvements to the experimental setup, as well as ideas for future projects, conclude this manuscript.