The ever-changing translation market requires translation degree programmes to prepare students for a flexible adaptation to unpredictable changes in demand for language services. A maximum of demand-oriented flexibility entails translators capability to add new working languages in a timely manner as need arises. Against this background, this thesis proposes a methodology for language instruction in translator training based on intercomprehension, which refers to the innate ability to (partially) comprehend unfamiliar languages without having them acquired previously. Research into third or additional language acquisition has repeatedly shown that intercomprehension may serve as the point of departure for the time-saving acquisition of receptive skills across closely related languages. In application to translator training, intercomprehension-based language instruction yields great potential for the design of modular elective language courses that enable would-be translators to efficiently exploit their existing linguistic knowledge and skills for the addition of passive working languages. Centring around the assumption that translation competence involves a series of metalinguistic skills that are transferrable to any language combination, the theoretical part of this thesis elaborates on the cognitive foundations of the integration of intercomprehension-based language instruction with translator training and presents the methodology with reference to two courses of this type held within the MA programme in Translation Studies at the University of Innsbruck. In the empirical part, data from these two courses are provided in support of the feasibility of this didactic approach. Furthermore, an exploratory analysis of intercomprehension-based translation processes is presented.