Microbial biogeography has long been and is still influenced by the hypothesis of a microbial cosmopolitanism meaning that everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects. A number of studies were able to confirm the existence of globally occurring species. However, a general cosmopolitanism of microorganisms is arguable taking into account appearing geographical patterns and applying high resolving molecular and fingerprinting methods. High costs and questionable feasibility of global sampling cause many studies to be carried out based on models. In this study we benefit from the bicycle trip of an artist sampling soils on a route from Austria (Europe) to Laos (Asia) and relate the communities of inherent fungi, ammonia-oxidising bacteria and actinobacteria to environmental as well as medium- and large scale spatial patterns. We first generate spatial variables applying the large scale trend surface analysis and the finer-scale Principal Coordinates of Neighbour Matrices. Then we check for influences using variation partitioning and subsequently combine all variables in the descriptive Canonical Correspondence Analysis. Our results show that the variability in all investigated microbial groups is to the greatest extent owed to environmental and not spatial patterns. Clearly distinct communities in soils of far apart lying sampling sites are formed for AOB, but not for actinobacteria. Furthermore, cosmopolitan species with relative abundances as high as 80.5% (fungi) 74.0 % (actinobacteria) and 68.0% (AOB) have been detected. These findings show that Eurasian soil microbial communities are following environmental rather than spatial constraints, highlighting the unequal influence of all concerned variables on different organisms and sites and strengthening the assumption of a global distribution especially for actinobacteria.